European Pentecostal Theological Association Bulletin (1992)
I first engaged the issue of Spirit christology during the 1970's while completing a dissertation on Spirit baptism. This prompted a lecture on the subject at Fuller Theological Seminary, a paper at the 1980 Society For Pentecostal Studies, an article in Heythrop Journal originally read as a paper to the American Academy of Religion in 1983 and, finally, a section in Spirit Baptism: A Pentecostal Alternative.(1) The confrontation with Spirit christology was inevitable because of a pneumabaptocentric formulation of christian initiation where it is baldly said "Christ" is received at "conversion" and then the "full personality of the Spirit" is linked to Spirit baptism.
In the meantime, both the Pentecostal-Charismatic Movements and surging interreligious
dialogue touched off a deluge of scholarly work on pneumatic christologies. These factors
continue to weigh heavy on further engagement of this topic. Consider the stimulating
extract from a book soon to be released by Oxford University Press read by Ralph Del Colle
to the 1992 edition of the Society For Pentecostal Studies. Meeting one week later, the
American Academy of Religion sported sundry papers touching on the same theme.(2)
Confounding the axiomatic antithesis between expressive narrative and reflective theology, the surge of pentecostal scholars provokes a search for theological treatises that are global in scope and seek to rise above controversies of the past. Pentecostal theologians who have disavowed appellations such as atheological and pretheological, are yet predictably drawn by the Apostolic Faith Project of the World Council of Churches in part because inherited restorianism resonates with sensitivities to doxological and confessional orientations. At least twelve pentecostalists attended Canberra which met under the banner "Come, Holy Spirit." This growing visibility has capitalized on the groundwork of others as seen in the newly created position of executive secretary of Church and Ecumenical Relations in Geneva that will actively seek pentecostal involvement in conciliar affairs. Recently installed as the general secretary of the World Council of Churches, Konrad Raiser penned an article in the shadow of Canberra that acknowledged the pentecostal-charismatic presence. Pentecostals will keep a weary eye on the current division in the conciliar movement between continued intramural conversations versus interreligious dialogue. Apprehension may be exacerbated by the growing numbers of premiere bilateral and multilateral talks in which dialogue partners return to churches that are fragmenting.(3)
The Apostolic Faith Project of the World Council of Churches, having set the stage with the far reaching BEM document, is well represented on this front by the stimulating study entitled Confessing The One Faith.(4) Although pentecostal doctrinal and pastoral priorities are missing, the greatest loss may be the lack of redress by BEM and One Faith to anything like the pentecostal ethos. By designating their indigenous fellowship as Encuentro Pentecostal Latinoamericano, Latin Americans lead the way expressing the cornerstone of pentecostal ethos as "encounter." Since pentecostals do not seek a radical departure from their inherited theology but rather its vivification, the term "experience" as denigrated in the West fails to capture the intended personal appropriation of biblical truths.(5) Ralph Del Colle steers away from this quicksand while projecting the debatable notion that pentecostal-charismatic initiation uniquely links christology and pneumatology. Gerald T. Sheppard earlier surveyed common ground between Pentecostalism and Eastern Orthodoxy discovered in the filioque controversy. A faint echo of the same can be heard in an Orthodox essay on christological pneumatology released as part of the series of documents preparing members for the Seventh assembly of the WCC.(6)
I wish to propose an innovation that offers a fresh perspective on the importance of Spirit christology to pentecostals and charismatics. The following is a North American pentecostal paradigm on church history.
Succession Teaching Restoration(7)
Catholic Magisterial Reformation Enthusiastic Pneumatomania(8)
Orthodox Lutheran Believer's Church:(9)
Anglican Presbyterian Baptists
Enthusiastic Pneumatomania produce groups most likely to earn the title, "Sacred theater of the spirit possessed." Despite renewed attempts to the contrary, twentieth century Enthusiastic Pneumatomania cannot be depicted simply as a sovereign work of God neither should the gift of W.J. Seymour to the church catholic be obscured. Further, twentieth century restorationists include those pentecostalists known collectively as Apostolics who have a particular twist on the subject that would require a reshaping of most proposals put forward.(11)
Edward Irving's Spirit christology clearly informed related charismatic manifestations. Gordon Strachan summarizes: "It is not just that the Church denies the possibility of the miraculous gifts of the Spirit. Behind that is the denial that Christ has come in the flesh and redeemed that flesh."(12) Considering the populist nature of classical pentecostalism, it remains possible that their translation of this effort may not even approximate Irving's version, especially as endorsed by Barth.(13) Meanwhile, an intersection can be observed between the restorianism of Montanism and Anglican Charismatics. Episcopal Charismatics gave birth to the magazine Trinity seeking to unleash the previously benign power of the Holy Spirit, while the charismatic dimension of Montanist spirituality may account for greater sensitivity to a triadic consciousness than mainstream Christendom of their day.(14)
Postmodern constructive thought with an interreligious orientation as exemplified in the work of Peter Hodgson clings to a trinitarian framework. His triune figuration with its dialectical process, which can be called theanthropocosmic, makes the hypostatic part of the classical Spirit christology discussion adiaphoristic. Similar comment would be directed toward Hick, Lampe, and company when called as witnesses to a pneumatic christology. James D.G. Dunn's Jesus and the Spirit offers little comfort to those who embrace essentialist language. Closer to the intent of traditional trinitarian concerns is the affirmation of Logos Christology by One Faith (#113).(15)
A model representative from the charismatic sector would be Yves Congar. Congar advanced this discussion in his important trilogy on pneumatology then The Word and the Spirit which anticipated several current concerns.(16) Another promising resource is the 1984 issue of the Bulletin voor Charismatische Theologie which summarized a discussion involving Martin Parmentier -- appointed May, 1992 as extraordinary professor for teaching theology of the Charismatic Renewal at the Free University of Amsterdam -- and Jean Jacques Suurmond on a Spirit christology dissertation completed under Prof Jan Veenhof, a charismatic who followed G.C. Berkouwer at the Free University of Amsterdam.(17)
Jürgen Moltmann's new The Spirit of Life addresses the synoptic Spirit christology analyzed by Hendrikus Berkhof. Moltmann finds a helpful corrective in the 1986 encyclical Dominum et Vivifacantem which lauds the Paschal Mystery as the key point of departure. Moltmann's own solution is what he calls the "trinitarian mutuality between God's Spirit and His Son." Moltmann says that the introduction of the filioque was grounded in salvation history and left the only pneumatological option to be a christological pneumatology. Advocating the knowing of God apophatically, he despairs of those who say the mutual relationship between pneumatology and christology must be viewed as a fundamental principle of Christian theology:
But this ecumenical requirement can be met only if
Christomonism is given up, and if enthusiastic
pneumatomania is avoided, and if both christology and
pneumatology are seen in the framework of a trinitarian
structure that embraces both. This preservers theocentrism
from either christocentrism or pneumatocentrism.(18)
Tensions between Pentecostalism and Modernity have given rise to labels such as precritical and submodern. Yet nothing of the kind entered the picture when the AAR executive refused space on the 1984 program for a pentecostal-charismatic focus group. So I spoke through Brighton '91, which featured Jürgen Moltmann and brought together 150 pentecostal and charismatic scholars of all known stripes from six continents, who gave voice to new insights for handling racism, sexism, socio-economic oppression, the environment, etc. This theological orientation, to be released July, 1993 by Sheffield Academic Press under the title All Together in One Place, may model an authentic postmodern agendum.(19)
Primary dissenters will be sympathizers of Altizer's ethnocentric scheme narrowly defining postmodern culture as marked by a "noticeable absence of God."(20) Part of the irony is that this undermines contemporary feminists who have elevated the status of theism with claims about female deities. Recalling that the Montanist Priscilla "saw" a "female" Christ, who has the advantage? Clark Pinnock's presentation on "Other Living Faiths" at Brighton '91, followed by A Wideness in God's Mercy, offers a charismatic alternative to the challenge of pluralism which underlies this axiom.(21) Part of the rationale for utilizing this descriptive category is because postmodernity is a polyglot term that admits determinism, scientific hegemony, etc, have given way to contingency and relativism. It is not difficult to support Robert Bellah's multilingualism over against the metalanguage of science.(22) The Brighton '91 model figures into the mix because it is not unrelated to Peter Hodgson's "material norm" identified as "liberation."(23)
Hodgson blasts those who hypostatize the Word of God, insisting that it is rather a medium "of ecclesial process by means of which the root experience of Christian faith" is "able to function redemptively in the transformation of human existence," while portraying the beginning of the hermeneutical circle as a "correlation" that can be called "faith."(24) To the degree that contemporary evangelicalism extracts its formulation of inerrancy from Scottish Common Sense Realism, Pentecostals clearly stand closer to the Pietistic preoccupation with the inspiration of persons rather than texts.(25) Convergence with this restorationist lineage places Pentecostals also in proximity to an aspect of Peter Hodgson's revisionary constructive theology. To those of us for whom Schleiermacher is a pleasant memory, this then is good news.
A certifiable pentecostal ecclesiology, now unavoidable in view of the pentecostal ubiquity, must cope with the remarkable summation captured in the original Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed when it sets off marks of the Church as "one, holy, catholic and apostolic" (One Faith #216-#241). Pentecostals have not always fared well when peering into this looking glass. At times trailblazers in the fight against racism, no contemporary example illustrates this better than the struggles of the Relevant Pentecostal Witness, the 1991 Society For Pentecostal Theology in South Africa and especially Frank Chikane's Institute for Contextual Theology responsible for The Kairos Document (see also One Faith #174) helping to push South Africa into a post-apartheid society. The 1991 Kappel Declaration, published simultaneously in Transformation and EPTA Bulletin,(26) is a small symbol of solidarity from pentecostals around the world. In the meantime, Nico Horn, who has not recoiled in the face of threatening apartheid struggles, uses a version of Spirit christology to call pentecostals back to a form of pacifism.(27)
Explication by One Faith (#208, #214, and #215) on charisms corresponds well to findings familiar to the Society For Pentecostal Studies, the Conference on Pentecostal and Charismatic Research in Europe, the Latin American Pentecostal Encounter, the Asian Charismatic Theological Association, and the Society For Pentecostal Theology in South Africa. Significantly, pentecostal academicians are turning away from mere obsession with lines of demarcation tied to initial evidence(28) and moving to the stuff of Spirit baptism. An incarnational model of Spirit baptism realized in addressing human rights among refugees in Costa Rica was given at Brighton '91 by Lic. Luis Segreda, professor at the widely respected Seminaro Biblico Latinoamericano.(29) African Indigenous Churches in Zimbabwe have demonstrated more acumen than their western counterparts by working toward the "salvation of all creation." Professor M.L. Daneel of UNISA gave a mesmerizing account at Brighton '91 of AICs converts in Zimbabwe racing around monstrous bonfires, then being confronted by prophets over environmental sins in a sacramental context. A thorough review of One Faith(30)
could move pentecostals toward a void in their pneumatology that was loudly trumpeted in documents preparing delegates for Canberra. Yves Congar admits that prodding from Moltmann accounted for a full chapter devoted to ecological concerns in his last volume. Indeed, the integrity of creation should flow out of humankind's responsibility for creation while avoiding the sacralization of nature (One Faith #205).
Harold D. Hunter
Scholar in Residence
Church of God Theological Seminary
1. Harold D. Hunter, "Spirit Christology: Dilemma and Promise," Heythrop Journal 24:2 & 24:3 (1983) and Spirit Baptism: A Pentecostal Alternative (Lanham: University Press of America, 1983).
2. Ralph Del Colle, "Spirituality in Light of Spirit Christology," Drinking From Our Own Wells: Defining a Pentecostal-Charismatic Spirituality, ed. by Cheryl Bridges Johns (Springfield: Society For Pentecostal Studies, 1992); 1992 paper by Lyle Dabey to Karl Barth Society which met in conjunction with AAR; 1992 AAR-SBL Abstracts.
3. 3 See the Dublin document reproduced in Ecumenical Trends 21:7 (July/August 1992) pp. 15f, 5; Konrad Raiser, "The Holy Spirit in Modern Ecumenical Thought," The Ecumenical Review 41:3 (July 1989) p. 385. A good overview of pentecostal interaction with the conciliar movement is told by Cecil M. Robeck, Jr., recently appointed to the Faith and Order Plenary Commission of the WCC, in "Pentecostals and Ecumenism: An Expanding Frontier," Crossing Borders, ed. by Jean-Daniel Plüss (Kappel: Conference on Pentecostal and Charismatic Research in Europe, 7-4-91). On separate occasions, Mel Robeck and Harold Hunter made direct appeals to Emilio Castro in Geneva, then general secretary of the WCC, for WCC engagement with pentecostals despite their non-member status. Wesley Granberg-Michaelson has been an in-house champion of such. Not to be forgotten are the fingerprints of Walter J. Hollenweger on various editions of The International Review of Mission and the work of Arnold Bittlinger as captured in The Church is Charismatic (Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1981).
4. 4 See Harold D. Hunter, "Reflections by a Pentecostalist on Aspects of BEM," Journal of Ecumenical Studies (Summer 1992) and "Musings on Confessing The One Faith," Pneuma (Fall 1992).
5. 5 See Juan Sepulveda, "Reflections on the Pentecostal Contribution to the Mission of the Church in Latin America," Journal of Pentecostal Theology 1 (1992) p. 100f. Also, The Variety of American Evangelicalism, ed. by Donald W. Dayton and Robert K. Johnston (Downer's Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1991) pp. 75,135,151f,157,171f,254,265; David Daniels, "Afro-American Worship: A Source for Pentecostal Theology," The Distinctiveness of Pentecostal-Charismatic Theology, ed. by Peter Hocken (Gaithersburg: Society for Pentecostal Studies, November 14-16, 1985); Harold D. Hunter, "What Is Truth," Toward a Pentecostal/ Charismatic Theology, ed. by J. Rodman Williams (South Hamilton: Society For Pentecostal Studies, 1984).
6. 6 Gerald T. Sheppard, "The Nicean Creed, Filioque, and Pentecostal Movements in the United States," Spirit of Truth, ed. by Theodore Stylianopoulous and S. Mark Heim (Brookline: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1986) p. 182:
The position of the West seems most concerned to link the
Spirit immanently with Jesus Christ lest movements of the
Spirit minimize the corrective of the Word of God in Christ.
.... Eastern Orthodox theologians have argued, the creedal
formulations in the West may seem to treat the Holy Spirit
as an inferior member of the Trinity. Pentecostals may pose
a similar challenge to the Western Church.
De Colle, "Spirit Christology," p. 4; John Breck, "'The Lord is the Spirit': An Essay on Christological Pneumatology," The Ecumenical Review 42:2 (April 1900) pp. 114-121.
7. 7 See Garry Dale Nation,"The Hermeneutics of Pentecostal-Charismatic Restoration Theology: A Critical Analysis," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, December, 1990, pp. 1ff,16,19,28,30; Variety of American Evangelicalism, pp. 113ff,35,42,64,67,70. Nation notes [p.97] that current restorationists identify with Paulicians, Bogomites, Albigenses, Waldensians, etc. He himself rules out Montanists in this category.
8. 8 This is my most recent alternative to the general term Spirit Movement. I used Spirit Movement for several years before discovering that Martin Marty appropriated it in a similar way when addressing the 1973 session of the Society for Pentecostal Studies. See Martin Marty, "Pentecostalism in the Context of American Piety and Practice," Aspects of Pentecostal-Charismatic Origins, ed. by Vinson Synan (Plainfield: Logos, 1973) p. 200. The term is found also in the 1974 Tübingen dissertation by John J. McNamee, "The Role of the Spirit in Pentecostalism."
9. 9 See: Donald F. Durnbaugh, The Believers' Church (Scottsdale: Herald Press, 1985); Paul Gritz, "'Church' in the History of Pentecostalism," paper read to 1991 Pentecostal-NCC Faith & Order Dialogue, p. 2; Eric H. Ohlmann, "Baptists and Evangelicals," Variety of American Evangelicalism, p. 149. Nation, "Restoration Theology," agrees [pp. 117, 61, 7,95], but is quick to remind that not all believers' churches are restorationists.
10. 10 See: Durnbaugh, Believers' Church, chapter 5; Gritz, "'Church' in the History of Pentecostalism," p. 2ff; Richard T. Hughes, "Are Restorationists Evangelicals?" Variety of American Evangelicalism, p. 112. Dick Iverson connects Luther, Mennonites, Baptists, Wesley and A.B. Simpson in restoration according to Nation, "Restoration Theology," p. 100f.
11. 11 Seymour parallels at least St. Francis. Unlike Wesley, Seymour did not directly start a denomination which, arguably, is what makes him a patron saint for all, at least western, Pentecostals and Charismatics. Regarding Oneness Pentecostalism, see David K. Bernard, "Essentials of Oneness Theology" and Dan Lewis, "The Theology of the Baptism in the Holy Spirit in the United Pentecostal Church," in papers presented to The First Occasional Symposium on Aspects of the Oneness Pentecostal Movement (Cambridge: Harvard Divinity School, July 5-7, 1984), Symposium on Oneness Pentecostalism: 1988 and 1990 (Hazelwood: World Aflame, 1990) and Spiritus: Estuidios Sobre Pentecostalism (Mexico City: 1985 onward) edited by Manuel J. Gaxiola-Gaxiola.
12. 12 Gordon Strachan, The Pentecostal Theology of Edward Irving (London: Darton, Longmann & Todd, 1973) p. 93. See: Hunter, Spirit Baptism, pp. 175,178; Nation, "Restoration Theology," p. 45; Jim Purves, "The Interaction of Christology and Pneumatology in the Soteriology of Edward Irving," Pneuma 14:1 (Spring 1992) pp. 81-90. David Dorries, "Edward Irving," Initial Evidence, ed. by Gary McGee (Peabody: Hendrickson Press, 1991) p. 43, extends this to say Irving's Spirit christology was actualized first by Mary Campbell.
13. 13 See Strachan, Irving, 21. Tom Smail's reappraisal of the Charismatic Movement -- The Forgotten Father (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980) pp. 97-99 -- distances himself from utilizing Irving's Spirit christology promoted in Reflected Glory (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975). cf. Smail, The Giving Gift (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1988).
14. 14 cf. Open To The Spirit: Anglicans and the Experience of Renewal, ed. by Colin Craston (London: Church House, 1987); John DeSoyres, Montanism and the Primitive Church (Cambridge: Deighton, Bell & Co., 1878) pp. 72, 114ff et al; Frederick C. Klawiter, "The Role of Martyrdom and Persecution in Developing the Priestly Authority of Women in Early Christianity: A Case Study on Montanism," Church History 49 (September, 1980) p. 252; Phillip Schaff, History of the Christian Church (AP&A) 1:2:188, 276; Ted A. Campbell, "Charismata in the Christian Communities of the Second Century," Wesleyan Theological Journal 17:2 (Fall, 1982) p. 13ff; Cecil M. Robeck, "The Role and Function of Prophetic Gifts for the Church of Carthage, AD 202-258," p. 261ff, 1984 doctoral dissertation released in 1992 by Pilgrim Press under the title Prophecy in Carthage; Jaroslav Pelikan, "Montanism and Its Trinitarian Significance," Church History 5 (June, 1956) p. 99ff; Ronald D. Heine, "The Role of the Gospel of John in Montanist Controversy," The Second Century 6:1 (Spring 1988); Robert D. Sider, "Approaches to Tertullian: A Study of Recent Scholarship," The Second Century 2:4 (Winter, 1982) p. 252f; Ronald D. Heine, The Montanist Oracles and Testimonia (Macon: Mercer University Press, 1989).
15. 15 Peter C. Hodgson, "Constructive Theology: A Revisioning," unpublished class lectures, Vanderbilt Divinity School (Fall, 1992) pp. 132, 32. Ralph Del Colle gave an insightful response to this concern at AAR '92 in a paper titled "Peter Hodgon's God in History: A Trinitarian Commentary." cf. James D.G. Dunn, "The Spirit of Jesus," The Holy Spirit: Renewing and Empowering Presence, ed. by George Vandervelde (Winfield: Wood Lake Books, Inc., 1989) pp. 11-26.
16. 16 See Yves Congar, Holy Spirit (New York: Seabury, 1983) 1:39, 2:40, 157f, 3:165ff. The Word and the Spirit was released by Harper & Row in 1986.
17. 17 cf. EPTA Bulletin 4:4 (1985) p. 75f; Jan Veenhof, "Charismata - Supernatural or Natural?" Holy Spirit: Renewing and Empowering Presence, pp. 73-92.
18. 18 Jürgen Moltmann, The Spirit of Life: A Universal Affirmation (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992) 72. See pages 69-73. There is considerable overlap with chapter 9 and the paper read at Brighton '91 entitled "The Spirit of Life: Spirituality and New Vitality." This fourth installment of Molmtann's systematic theology sold out two hours after the AAR-SBL vendors first displayed their wares in San Francisco. Having lauded a pre-publication copy of this text, Peter Hodgon interacted with the book in his Fall, 1992 version of constructive theology.
19. 19 See the special reports on Brighton '91 in Tychique #95 (Jan-Feb 1992) and Ecumenical Trends (3&4-92).
20. 20 For example, Hodgson "Constructive Theology," p. 43.
21. 21 A Wideness in God's Mercy (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1992) was stretched during the 1992 AAR Evangelical Theological Group when Pinnock explored port-mortem conversion in "The Finality of Jesus Christ in a World of Religons," p. 4. See also John Sanders, No Other Name (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992) and Justin S. Ukpong, "Pluralism and the Problem of the Discernment of Spirits," The Ecumenical Review 41:3 (July 1989) pp. 416-425.
22. 22 See Jeffrey C. Pugh's review of Postmodern Theology: Christian Faith in a Pluralist World, ed. by Frederic Burnham (Harper & Row, 1987) in JAAR 59:2 (Summer, 1991) pp. 396-398.
23. 23 Hodgson, "Constructive Theology," p. 19. Harvey Cox, luminous professor of Harvard Divinity School, attended SPS '92 hosted by the Assemblies of God Theological Seminary. Cox and Assemblies of God minister Eldin Villafañe co-teach a course revealing convergences between liberation and pentecostalism. One of their resources has been the paper delivered at Brighton '91 by Juan Sepulveda titled "Pentecostalism and Liberation Theology: Two Manifestations of the Work of the Spirit in the Renovation of the Church."
24. 24 Hodgson, "Constructive Theology," pp. 118, 13, 106 respectively. See also pp. 8f, 19, 86. Bassett, "North American Holiness Movement," pp. 90 and 93:
... Haynes, who could hypostatize the Bible in grand
fundamentalist fashion and then insist on the absolute
priority of Christ the Living Word in ways that made the
Bible instrumental only.
Here, Wiley fully reflects both the original impulses of the
Protestant Reformation and Wesley's Anglicanism. The Bible
is finally and essentially an instrument of revelation, not
ultimate revelation itself. In this, we are at a far remove
from either Phoebe Palmer, fundamentalism, or the theological expressions of Scottish Common Sense.
25. 25 C. John Weborg, "Pietism: Theology in Service of Living Toward God," The Variety of American Evangelicalism, p. 176f. cf. Richard T. Hughes, "Are Restorationists Evangelicals?", p. 115. See "Lutherans," p. 237; "Holiness," p. 85. Also: The Variety of American Evangelicalism, pp. 77ff,142,87,105f,266,177,11,115.
26. 26 "A Declaration of Solidarity With the Relevant Pentecostal Witness in South Africa," Transformation 9:1 and EPTA Bulletin 10:1. This has been reproduced also in Azusa 1:2 (March 1992) p. 54f.
27. 27 Nico Horn, "Pentecostal Peace - A Challenge to Militarism," Azusa 1:2 (March 1992) p. 6.
28. 28 Gary McGee's Initial Evidence marks a watershed for North American Pentecostal denominations since the thrust of the volume is to challenge this litmus test. Similarly: Jean-Daniel Plüss, "Azusa and Other Myths: The Long and Winding Road from Experience to Stated Belief and Back Again," Drinking From Our Own Wells and Jean-Jacques Suurmond, "The Meaning and Purpose of Spirit-Baptism and the Charisms," Experiences of the Spirit, ed. by Jan A.B. Jongeneel (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1991) pp. 35-62. For a sampling of prior explorations see: Gordon D. Fee, "Baptism in the Holy Spirit: The Issue of Separability and Subsequence," Toward a Pentecostal/Charismatic Theology, ed. by J. Rodman Williams (South Hamilton: Society For Pentecostal Studies, November 15-17, 1984); Anthony D. Palma, "The Gifts and the Fruit of the Spirit," Conference on the Holy Spirit Digest, ed. by Gwen Jones (Springfield: Gospel Publishing House, 1983) 1:193ff. The 1979 Gallup poll reported in Christianity Today claimed that 50% - 33% of pentecostals and charismatics actually spoke in tongues.
29. 29 Elsa Tamez, professor at the Seminario Biblico Latinoamericano, delivered the plenary address for SBL on November 22, 1922. Dr. Tamez received a standing ovation for a speech no less penetrating than that provided by Luis Segreda at Brighton '91.
30. 30 One Faith's treatment of ecological issues is to be found under "Creation and the Triune God" (#78-#89, #198) and "Living Our Hope" (#274-#278).